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15th International Congress on American Pathology and Oncology Research, will be organized around the theme “Shaping the Future for Innovations in Pathology and Oncology Research”
American Pathology 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in American Pathology 2018
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Anatomical pathology is the major specialty of pathology that deals with the study of the morphologic aspects of disease. Anatomical Pathology concerns with the diagnosis of tissue and organ based macro or microscopic testing. The latest research undergoes from the following topics like Radiofrequency identification & specimen tracking, advanced biosafety practices, Multi-model anatomical pathology and Anatomical pathology of sexually transmitted diseases. There are 36 associations and societies in USA and 18000 pathologists and 90 universities in USA. And 630 companies and 3400 hospitals around USA associated with pathology. The market revenue is expected to reach $74.65 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.34% during 2014-2020. Diagnostic Medicine market growth rate is 5-7% yearly.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with tumors. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. Integrative oncology manages the mind, body, and spirit. Modalities of movement, touch, nutrition, and mindfulness are used within conventional cancer care to address and improve symptoms and quality-of-life.Oncologic emergencies, as the term implies, are complications resulting from a cancer itself, a paraneoplastic syndrome, or from treatment of the cancer, that require immediate attention and reversal, if possible. Inpatient treatment is a must, and often these conditions require intervention in an intensive care setting.Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with tumors. A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. Integrative oncology manages the mind, body, and spirit. Modalities of movement, touch, nutrition, and mindfulness are used within conventional cancer care to address and improve symptoms and quality-of-life.Immuno-oncology therapiesa activate our immune system, making it able to recognise cancer cells and destroy them.Oncologic emergencies, as the term implies, are complications resulting from a cancer itself, a paraneoplastic syndrome, or from treatment of the cancer, that require immediate attention and reversal, if possible. Inpatient treatment is a must, and often these conditions require intervention in an intensive care setting.
- Integrative oncology
- Immuno oncology
- Neuro oncology
- Gynecology oncologists insights
- Oncological emergencies
- Consuming excessive alcohol
Clinical Pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids. Clinical Pathology is one of the major classifications of Pathology. Clinical Pathology is accomplished through practical diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis. Clinical Pathology is also useful in diagnosis of recent out broken diseases like Zika fever which is caused by zika virus. Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. Clinical Pathology so far covers the diagnostic testing, Implications of cancer patients, Prognostic value, clinical and non-clinical toxicology testing, Clinical finding of cancer and other disease. It emerges other subtopic like Neuropathology. The following topics are the latest research going on in clinical Pathology. There are 36 associations and societies all over the world and 90 universities are working for clinical pathology. Companies/Laboratories like Clinical Pathology Laboratories and other diagnostics laboratories are leading in research of this clinical pathology and 3400 hospitals around USA are associated with pathology.
Clinical Oncology includes Medical Oncology (MO) ,Surgical Oncology (SO) , Gynecologic Oncology, Hematologic Malignancies .Medical oncology communicates the results of clinical and experimental research in oncology and haematology, particularly with experimental therapeutics with the field of immunotherapy and chemotherapy. A surgical and non surgical oncologist specializes in the removal of the tumours and surrounding tissue during an operation. A surgical also performs biopsies (the removal of a small amount of tissue for examination under a microscope). Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system, including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer. Hematologic malignancies are forms of cancer that begin in the cells of blood-forming tissue, such as the bone marrow, or in the cells of the immune system. Werner syndrome (WS), also known as "adult progeria is a rare, autosomal recessive progeroid syndrome (PS), which is characterized by the appearance of premature aging.
- Medical oncology
- Surgical and non-surgical oncology
- Gynecologic oncology
- Werner syndrome
- Cancer biology
Dermatopathology is a joint subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser extent of surgical pathology that focuses on the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic and molecular level. It also encompasses analyses of the potential causes of skin diseases at a basic level. In fact, most of them are trained primarily in dermatology themselves. Dermatologists are able to recognize most skin diseases based on their appearances, anatomic distributions, and behavior. Sometimes, however, those criteria do not allow a conclusive diagnosis to be made, and a skin biopsy is taken to be examined under the microscope or subject to other molecular tests. That process reveals the histology of the disease and results in a specific diagnostic interpretation. In some cases, additional specialized testing needs to be performed on biopsies, including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and molecular-pathologic analysis.
The diagnosis, treatment and prevention of blood diseases (hematology) and cancer (oncology) and research into them. Hematology-oncology includes such diseases as iron deficiency anemia, hemophilia, sickle cell disease, the thalassemias, leukemias and lymphomas, as well as cancers of other organs. Tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues or haematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies are tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, lymph, and lymphatic system. Plasma cell dyscrasias are disorders of the plasma cells. Plasma cell dyscrasias are produced as a result of abnormal proliferation of a monoclonal population of plasma cells that may or may not secrete detectable levels of a monoclonal immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragment (paraprotein or M protein). Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer of the blood and bone marrow - the spongy tissue inside bones where blood cells are made. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells. Both Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are lymphomas — a type of cancer that begins in a subset of white blood cells called lymphocytes.
- Haematological malignancies
- Plasma cell disorders
- Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
- Myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative disorders
- Multiple myeloma
Cancer stem cells are cancer cells that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. The "mutation in stem cell niche populations during development" hypothesis claims that these developing stem populations are mutated and then reproduce so that the mutation is shared by many descendants. These daughter cells are much closer to becoming tumors and their numbers increase the chance of a cancerous mutation. De-differentiation of mutated cells may create stem cell-like characteristics, suggesting that any cell might become a cancer stem cell.
- Cancer Stem Cells
- Stem Cell Transplantation
- Bone Marrow Transplantation
- CSCs and Cancer Treatment
- Cancer Pharmacology
Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is concentrated in the study and conclusion of ailment through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids. Molecular pathology imparts a few parts of practice with drug development, disease management strategies and is sometimes considered a crossover discipline. It is multi-disciplinary in nature and concentrates primarily on the sub-minute parts of diseases. A key consideration is that more accurate diagnosis is possible when the diagnosis is based on both the morphologic changes in tissues and on molecular testing of diseases like cancer. In this sub topics Molecular pathology is very useful in drug development and cancer. There are 5 associations and societies and the main association for Molecular Pathology is the Association of Molecular Pathology in USA. 78 universities are working on Molecular Pathology. Companies and hospitals around USA are associated with pathology. NIH has released $197,088 for Molecular Pathology research
Cancer Diagnostics plays an important role throughout your cancer treatment. Physical Examination, Laboratory tests, Biopsy, Imaging tests, Nuclear medicine scans, Endoscopy, Genetic tests are some of the diagnostic tests which are being carried out in the present world. Cancer Diagnostic testing involves tests and procedures to confirm the presence of disease and identify the correct tumor type, location, extent and stage.
- X -ray
- CT scan
- MRI scan
- Ultrasound scan
- Nuclear Scan
- PET scan
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Molecular diagonstics
- Imaging techniques
- Clinical staging
- Pathologic staging
Gastrointestinal pathology (including liver, gallbladder and pancreas) is a recognized sub-specialty discipline of surgical pathology. Recognition of a sub-specialty is generally related to dedicated fellowship training offered within the subspecialty or, alternatively, to surgical pathologists with a special interest and extensive experience in gastrointestinal pathology. The gastrointestinal (GI) pathology determines quality diagnostic histopathology on gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies and resections of the gastrointestinal and pancreatico-biliary systems. Liver disease can occur through several mechanisms. A common form of liver disease is viral infection. Viral hepatitides such as Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus can be vertically transmitted during birth via contact with infected blood.
The term 'pediatric oncologist' usually refers to physicians who have specialized in pediatrics and then received further training in medical oncology and hematology. This means that rather than using surgery or radiation therapy to treat cancer, pediatric oncologists typically use medications and chemotherapy. Myeloid leukemia is a type of leukemia affecting myeloid tissue. In medicine, histiocytosis refers to an excessive number of histiocytes, (tissue macrophages), and is typically used to refer to a group of rare diseases which share this as a characteristic. Occasionally and confusingly, the term "histiocytosis" is sometimes used to refer to individual diseases. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia, also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia or acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), is an acute form of leukemia, or cancer of the white blood cells, characterized by the overproduction and accumulation of cancerous, immature white blood cells, known as lymphoblasts A brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.
- Myeloid leukemias
- Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Solid non brain tumours
- Brain Tumours
- Myeloid leukemias
Hematopathology is a subspecialty of pathology. Hematopathology concern with the study of hematopoietic cells diseases and hematological disorders. A wide range of diagnosis test are done in Acute and chronic leukemia, Myelodysplastic syndromes, Myeloproliferative disorders, Anemias, Benign bone marrow and lymph node disorders, B-cell lymphomas and T-cell lymphomas and Cutaneous lymphomas. There are 89 universities all over the USA where pathology research works are carried out in that main universities engaged in Hematopathology research are the university of Texas MD Anderson cancer center, Stanford university of Medicine, Yale University and Washington University. National institute of cancer have released $540,054 for Hematopathology research.
A radiation oncologist is a specialist physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer. Radiation oncology is one of the three primary specialties, the other two being surgical and medical oncology, involved in the treatment of cancer. Brachytherapy is an advanced cancer treatment. Radioactive seeds or sources are placed in or near the tumor itself, giving a high radiation dose to the tumor while reducing the radiation exposure in the surrounding healthy tissues. External beam therapy (EBT), also called external radiation therapy, is a method for delivering a beam or several beams of high-energy x-rays to a patient's tumor. Intraoperative radiation therapy, or IORT is the application of therapeutic levels of radiation to the tumor bed while the area is exposed during surgery. Systemic radiation therapy is a type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material travels through the bloodstream to reach cells all over the body. Systemic radiation is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as thyroid cancer, or to relieve pain when cancer has spread (metastasized) to the bone. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses an antibody labeled with a radionuclide to deliver cytotoxic radiation to a target cell. In cancer therapy, an antibody with specificity for a tumor-associated antigen is used to deliver a lethal dose of radiation to the tumor cells.
- Medical and radiation physics
- Barchytherapy and external beam therapy
- Intraoperative and systemic radiation therapy
- Radiosensitizers and radioprotectors
- Radioactive therapy
- Nuclear Imaging (PET and SPECT)
- Radiotherapy wires
- Safety measures
Surgical pathology is the investigation of tissues expelled from living patients amid surgery to help analyze a malady and focus a treatment arrangement. Regularly, the surgical pathologist gives consultation benefits in a wide assortment of organ indications and subspecialties. Surgical pathologists give symptomatic data and/or second conclusions. Case in point, when performing breast cancer surgery, a surgical pathologist's examination of tissues separated during the surgery can help the specialist to figure out if to evacuate lymph nodes under the arm, also. Surgical pathology incorporates both the physical examination of the tissue with the bare eye, and inspecting handled tissue under a magnifying instrument. There are 92 universities all over the USA where pathology research works are carried out in that main universities engaged in Surgical Pathology research are Stanford university of Medicine, John Hopkins University, Duke University and Washington University. National institute of cancer have released $ 1,265,135 for Surgical Pathology research.
Cancer biomarkers, particular those associated with genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations, often offer a quantitative way to determine when individuals are predisposed to particular types of cancers. A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology.
- Biomarkers in cancer research
- Biomarkers in medicine
- Risk assessment, diagnosis
- Prognosis and treatment predictions
- Molecular cancer biomarkers
Cytopathology is a diagnostic technique that examines cells from various body sites to determine the cause or the nature of disease. The first cytopathology test developed was the Pap test which has been widely utilized in the last 50 years for screening and diagnosing of cervical cancer and its precursors. The Pap test is considered the most successful screening test in medical history. Histopathology is the study of tissues (histology) and cells (cytology) and usually includes morbid anatomy (autopsies). Many refer to this specialty as Cellular Pathology. Histopathologists need good attention to detail for examining tissue and diagnosing disease. Histopathology involves the examination of sampled whole tissues under the microscope.
OCR is currently recruiting Associate Editors to join our team specialising in Haematology and Oncology. Globally it is expected that there are 7.6 million new cancer cases per annum, out of which 52% happen in developing countries. Case reports should include relevant positive and negative findings from history, examination and investigation, and can include clinical photographs, provided these are accompanied by written consent to publish from the patient(s). Case reports should include an up-to-date review of all previous cases in the field.
- Cancer Case studies
- Clinical case reports
- Medical case reports
- Cancer in clinical trails
Breast cancers can be divided into two main overarching groups: the carcinomas and the sarcomas. Carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial component of the breast. The epithelial component consists of the cells that line the lobules and terminal ducts; under normal conditions, these epithelial cells are responsible for making milk. Carcinomas comprise the vast majority of all breast cancers, and will be further discussed below. Sarcomas are rare cancers that arise from the stromal (connective tissue) components of the breast. These stromal component cells include myofibroblasts and blood vessel cells, and cancers arising from these "supportive" cells include phyllodes tumors and angiosarcoma. Sarcomas account for less than 1% of primary breast cancers.
The renal pathology research findings are associated with light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence to obtain the accurate diagnosis. Renal Pathology or kidney pathology covers the topics toxic tubular necrosis, renal carcinomas, Diabetic glomerulosclerosis and other kidney related diseases examined under microscope or molecular testing. Renal pathology in nephrology, toxins, tumors and Pathology of lupus glomerulonephritis are also very important research topics for renal pathology. Medical renal diseases may affect the glomerulus, the tubules and interstitium, the vessels, or a combination of these compartments.
Cancer pharmacology plays a key role in drug development. In both the laboratory and the clinic, cancer pharmacology has had to adapt to the changing face of drug development by establishing experimental models and target orientated approaches. It also focuses on developing experimental approaches to the clinical treatment of cancer through research that bridges the fields of molecular carcinogenesis, biochemical pharmacology, radiation biology, and clinical pharmacology. It generally involves the pharmacological and oncological aspects of drugs at both an experimental and clinical level.
- Cancer Drug Targets
- Molecular Carcinogenesis
- Biochemical Pharmacology
- Clinical Pharmacology
- Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology refers to the diseases of the mouth, jaws and related structures such as salivary glands, temporomandibular joints, facial muscles and perioral skin. It is a sub-specialty of both dentistry and Pathology or termed as head and neck pathology. It deals with the diagnosis and epidemiology of the disease. It Comprises of Microscopic diagnosis of biopsy specimens, Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Oral cancers, lesions and surgery in pediatric patients and reconstruction of maxillofacial defects. There are 36 associations and societies in USA and 18000 pathologists and 90 universities in USA. 1400 hospitals around USA associated with pathology.
Metastasis, or metastatic disease, is the spread of a cancer or other disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it. An oncovirus is a virus that can cause cancer. This term originated from studies of acutely transforming retroviruses in the 1950–60s, often called oncornaviruses to denote their RNA virus origin. Carcinogenesis or oncogenesis or tumorigenesis is the actual formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. Mutagenesis /mjuːtəˈdʒɛnɪsɪs/ is a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed in a stable manner, resulting in a mutation. It may occur spontaneously in nature, or as a result of exposure to mutagens. Apoptosis is a form of physiological cell death mediated by caspases, a unique family of intracellular cysteine proteases.
- Metastatic tumors
- Cancer genetics and genomics
- Alteration in apoptosis
Any abnormal condition of the respiratory system, characterized by cough, chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis, sputum production, stridor, or adventitious sounds. Less common symptoms include anxiety, arm and shoulder pain, tenderness in the calf of the leg, erythema nodosum, swelling of the face, headache, hoarseness, joint pain, and somnolence. Diagnostic procedures for pulmonary diseases include bronchoscopy; cytological, serological, and biochemical examination of bronchial secretions; laryngoscopy; pulmonary function tests; and radiography.
A pathogen is a microorganism that is able to cause disease in a plant, animal or insect. Pathogenicity is the ability to produce disease in a host organism. Microbes express their pathogenicity by means of their virulence, a term which refers to the degree of pathogenicity of the microbe. Hence, the determinants of virulence of a pathogen are any of its genetic or biochemical or structural features that enable it to produce disease in a host
Chemotherapeutic agent An agent used to treat cancer administered in regimens of one or more cycles, combining two or more agents over a period of days to weeks. Intravenous (IV) chemotherapy (chemo) is one way to receive cancer-fighting medicine. Oral chemotherapy (chemo) is a treatment used to shrink a tumor or kill cancer cells. Oral chemo is usually taken in the form of a pill or capsule. Arterial chemotherapy infusion of the liver and chemoembolization of the liver (transarterial chemoembolization or TACE) are similar procedures that are used for the treatment of cancers in the liver. Adjuvant therapy or care, also called adjunct therapy or adjunctive therapy or care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary, main, or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness. Topical chemotherapy is a cream or lotion applied directly to the skin cancer. Different drugs cause different side effects. Certain types of chemotherapy often have specific side effects. But, each person’s experience is different.
- Chemotherapeutic agents
- Intravenous (IV) chemotherapy
- Oral chemotherapy
- Injected chemotherapy
- Chemotherapy into an artery
- Chemotherapy into the peritoneum
- Adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy
- Topical chemotherapy
- Side effects of chemotherapy
e-Pathology is defining the new paradigm of anatomic pathology. Telepathology image based information sent to the far distance by telecommunication technology for research analysis in both academic and business side. e-Pathology is a complete scan of a microscopic glass slide and the viewing of the eSlide on a computer monitor through a digital software system. The researches in pathology look beyond the Advancements in diagnosis pathology by using the automated image analysis. The global digital pathology market, valued at $1.98 billion in 2012, is estimated to reach $5.7 billion by 2020. The Association of Digital Pathology is the main Association in Digital pathology field and conducts annual Pathology meetings. Ventana, Leica, Philips, GE Helath care are the main competitors for Digital Pathology software updates and new releases.
Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality. Complete removal of the cancer without damage to the rest of the body (that is, achieving cure with near-zero adverse effects) is the ideal goal of treatment and is often the goal in practice. Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of deficiencies in the expression of two or more genes leads to cell death, whereas a deficiency in only one of these genes does not.
- Stem cell therapy
- Gene therapy
- Proton therapy
- Stem cell transplantation
- Stem cell therapy
- LASER and LASIC
- Targeted Therapy
- Hormonal Therapy
- Angiogenesis Inhibitors
- Prognosis and treatment predictions
- Molecular cancer biomarkers
Oncogenomics is a sub-field of genomics that characterizes cancer-associated genes. It focuses on genomic, epigenomic and transcript alterations in cancer. Comparative oncogenomics uses cross-species comparisons to identify oncogenes. Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of deficiencies in the expression of two or more genes leads to cell death, whereas a deficiency in only one of these genes does not. The deficiencies can arise through mutations, epigenetic alterations or inhibitors of one of the genes.
Veterinary Pathology is the study and diagnosis of animal disease by using animal tissue and fluids. Veterinary Pathology is classified into two main disciplines; those are veterinary anatomical pathology and veterinary clinical pathology. Veterinary Pathology deals with the following diseases like Veterinary parasite diseases and Veterinary parasitology whereas Veterinary clinical pathology deals with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis. The American college of veterinary pathologists and European college veterinary pathologists are the main organizations working on pathology research and grants for the research. Veterinary pathology provides a critical link between the basic and clinical sciences. There are 10 main associations and societies in USA and approximately 60 universities around USA are associated with Veterinary Pathology.