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15th CME Congress on Pathology and Cancer Research, will be organized around the theme “Shaping the Future for the Betterment of Human Health”

Pathology and Cancer Research 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Pathology and Cancer Research 2018

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Oncogenomics is a sub-field of genomics that characterizes cancer-associated genes. It focuses on genomic, epigenomic and transcript alterations in cancer. Comparative oncogenomics uses cross-species comparisons to identify oncogenes. Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of deficiencies in the expression of two or more genes leads to cell death, whereas a deficiency in only one of these genes does not. The deficiencies can arise through mutations, epigenetic alterations or inhibitors of one of the genes.

Cancer biomarkers, particular those associated with genetic mutations or epigenetic alterations, often offer a quantitative way to determine when individuals are predisposed to particular types of cancers. A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology.

Cancer Diagnostics plays an important role throughout your cancer treatment. Physical Examination, Laboratory tests, Biopsy, Imaging tests, Nuclear medicine scans, Endoscopy, Genetic tests are some of the diagnostic tests which are being carried out in the present world. Cancer Diagnostic testing involves tests and procedures to confirm the presence of disease and identify the correct tumor type, location, extent and stage.

Cancer immune surveillance is considered to be an important host protection process to inhibit carcinogenesis and to maintain cellular homeostasis. Cancer immunology is a branch of immunology that studies interactions between the immune system and cancer cells.

Metastasis is the leading reason for the resultant mortality of patients with cancer. Once tumor cells acquire the ability to penetrate the surrounding tissues, the process of invasion is instigated as these motile cells pass through the basement membrane and extracellular matrix, progressing to intravasation as they penetrate the lymphatic or vascular circulation. Metastasis is the spread of cancer cells to new areas of the body often by way of the lymph system or bloodstream. Transcoelomic, Lymphatic spread, Hematogenous spread, transplantation or implantation are the different routes of cancer metastasis.

The major types of cancer are carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Carcinomas -- the most commonly diagnosed cancers -- originate in the skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas, and other organs and glands. The most common cancer types are Bladder cancer, Colon and Rectal Cancer, Melanoma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Endometrial Cancer, Kidney Cancer, Leukemia, Thyroid Cancer and Liver cancer.

Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality. Complete removal of the cancer without damage to the rest of the body (that is, achieving cure with near-zero adverse effects) is the ideal goal of treatment and is often the goal in practice. Synthetic lethality arises when a combination of deficiencies in the expression of two or more genes leads to cell death, whereas a deficiency in only one of these genes does not.

Cancer stem cells are cancer cells that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, specifically the ability to give rise to all cell types found in a particular cancer sample. CSCs are therefore tumorigenic (tumor-forming), perhaps in contrast to other non-tumorigenic cancer cells. The "mutation in stem cell niche populations during development" hypothesis claims that these developing stem populations are mutated and then reproduce so that the mutation is shared by many descendants. These daughter cells are much closer to becoming tumors and their numbers increase the chance of a cancerous mutation. De-differentiation of mutated cells may create stem cell-like characteristics, suggesting that any cell might become a cancer stem cell.

Molecular pathology is an emerging discipline within pathology which is concentrated in the study and conclusion of ailment through the examination of molecules within organs, tissues or bodily fluids. Molecular pathology imparts a few parts of practice with drug development, disease management strategies and is sometimes considered a crossover discipline. It is multi-disciplinary in nature and concentrates primarily on the sub-minute parts of diseases. A key consideration is that more accurate diagnosis is possible when the diagnosis is based on both the morphologic changes in tissues and on molecular testing of diseases like cancer. In this sub topics Molecular pathology is very useful in drug development and cancer. There are 5 associations and societies and the main association for Molecular Pathology is the Association of Molecular Pathology in USA. 78 universities are working on Molecular Pathology. Companies and hospitals around USA are associated with pathology. NIH has released $197,088 for Molecular Pathology research

Surgical pathology is the investigation of tissues expelled from living patients amid surgery to help analyze a malady and focus a treatment arrangement. Regularly, the surgical pathologist gives consultation benefits in a wide assortment of organ indications and subspecialties. Surgical pathologists give symptomatic data and/or second conclusions. Case in point, when performing breast cancer surgery, a surgical pathologist's examination of tissues separated during the surgery can help the specialist to figure out if to evacuate lymph nodes under the arm, also. Surgical pathology incorporates both the physical examination of the tissue with the bare eye, and inspecting handled tissue under a magnifying instrument. There are 92 universities all over the USA where pathology research works are carried out in that main universities engaged in Surgical Pathology research are Stanford university of Medicine, John Hopkins University, Duke University and Washington University. National institute of cancer have released $ 1,265,135 for Surgical Pathology research.

Breast cancers can be divided into two main overarching groups: the carcinomas and the sarcomas. Carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial component of the breast. The epithelial component consists of the cells that line the lobules and terminal ducts; under normal conditions, these epithelial cells are responsible for making milk. Carcinomas comprise the vast majority of all breast cancers, and will be further discussed below. Sarcomas are rare cancers that arise from the stromal (connective tissue) components of the breast. These stromal component cells include myofibroblasts and blood vessel cells, and cancers arising from these "supportive" cells include phyllodes tumors and angiosarcoma. Sarcomas account for less than 1% of primary breast cancers.

Cytopathology is a diagnostic technique that examines cells from various body sites to determine the cause or the nature of disease. The first cytopathology test developed was the Pap test which has been widely utilized in the last 50 years for screening and diagnosing of cervical cancer and its precursors. The Pap test is considered the most successful screening test in medical history. Histopathology is the study of tissues (histology) and cells (cytology) and usually includes morbid anatomy (autopsies). Many refer to this specialty as Cellular Pathology. Histopathologists need good attention to detail for examining tissue and diagnosing disease. Histopathology involves the examination of sampled whole tissues under the microscope.

Clinical Pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids. Clinical Pathology is one of the major classifications of Pathology. Clinical Pathology is accomplished through practical diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis. Clinical Pathology is also useful in diagnosis of recent out broken diseases like Zika fever which is caused by zika virus. Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. Clinical Pathology so far covers the diagnostic testing, Implications of cancer patients, Prognostic value, clinical and non-clinical toxicology testing, Clinical finding of cancer and other disease. It emerges other subtopic like Neuropathology. The following topics are the latest research going on in clinical Pathology. There are 36 associations and societies all over the world and 90 universities are working for clinical pathology. Companies/Laboratories like Clinical Pathology Laboratories and other diagnostics laboratories are leading in research of this clinical pathology and 3400 hospitals around USA are associated with pathology.

Anatomical pathology is the major specialty of pathology that deals with the study of the morphologic aspects of disease. Anatomical Pathology concerns with the diagnosis of tissue and organ based macro or microscopic testing. The latest research undergoes from the following topics like Radiofrequency identification & specimen tracking, advanced biosafety practices, Multi-model anatomical pathology and Anatomical pathology of sexually transmitted diseases.  There are 36 associations and societies in USA and 18000 pathologists and 90 universities in USA. And 630 companies and 3400 hospitals around USA associated with pathology. The market revenue is expected to reach $74.65 billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 5.34% during 2014-2020. Diagnostic Medicine market growth rate is 5-7% yearly.

The renal pathology research findings are associated with light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence to obtain the accurate diagnosis. Renal Pathology or kidney pathology covers the topics toxic tubular necrosis, renal carcinomas, Diabetic glomerulosclerosis and other kidney related diseases examined under microscope or molecular testing. Renal pathology in nephrology, toxins, tumors and Pathology of lupus glomerulonephritis are also very important research topics for renal pathology. Medical renal diseases may affect the glomerulus, the tubules and interstitium, the vessels, or a combination of these compartments.

Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology refers to the diseases of the mouth, jaws and related structures such as salivary glands, temporomandibular joints, facial muscles and perioral skin. It is a sub-specialty of both dentistry and Pathology or termed as head and neck pathology. It deals with the diagnosis and epidemiology of the disease. It Comprises of Microscopic diagnosis of biopsy specimens, Oral and Maxillofacial surgery, Oral cancers, lesions and surgery in pediatric patients and reconstruction of maxillofacial defects. There are 36 associations and societies in USA and 18000 pathologists and 90 universities in USA. 1400 hospitals around USA associated with pathology.

Hematopathology is a subspecialty of pathology. Hematopathology concern with the study of hematopoietic cells diseases and hematological disorders. A wide range of diagnosis test are done in Acute and chronic leukemia, Myelodysplastic syndromes, Myeloproliferative disorders, Anemias, Benign bone marrow and lymph node disorders, B-cell lymphomas and T-cell lymphomas and Cutaneous lymphomas. There are 89 universities all over the USA where pathology research works are carried out in that main universities engaged in Hematopathology research are the university of Texas MD Anderson cancer center, Stanford university of Medicine, Yale University and Washington University. National institute of cancer have released $540,054 for Hematopathology research.

Any abnormal condition of the respiratory system, characterized by cough, chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis, sputum production, stridor, or adventitious sounds. Less common symptoms include anxiety, arm and shoulder pain, tenderness in the calf of the leg, erythema nodosum, swelling of the face, headache, hoarseness, joint pain, and somnolence. Diagnostic procedures for pulmonary diseases include bronchoscopy; cytological, serological, and biochemical examination of bronchial secretions; laryngoscopy; pulmonary function tests; and radiography.

A pathogen is a microorganism that is able to cause disease in a plant, animal or insect. Pathogenicity is the ability to produce disease in a host organism. Microbes express their pathogenicity by means of their virulence, a term which refers to the degree of pathogenicity of the microbe. Hence, the determinants of virulence of a pathogen are any of its genetic or biochemical or structural features that enable it to produce disease in a host

Gastrointestinal pathology (including liver, gallbladder and pancreas) is a recognized sub-specialty discipline of surgical pathology. Recognition of a sub-specialty is generally related to dedicated fellowship training offered within the subspecialty or, alternatively, to surgical pathologists with a special interest and extensive experience in gastrointestinal pathology. The gastrointestinal (GI) pathology determines quality diagnostic histopathology on gastrointestinal endoscopic biopsies and resections of the gastrointestinal and pancreatico-biliary systems. Liver disease can occur through several mechanisms. A common form of liver disease is viral infection. Viral hepatitides such as Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus can be vertically transmitted during birth via contact with infected blood.

Dermatopathology is a joint subspecialty of dermatology and pathology and to a lesser extent of surgical pathology that focuses on the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic and molecular level. It also encompasses analyses of the potential causes of skin diseases at a basic level. In fact, most of them are trained primarily in dermatology themselves. Dermatologists are able to recognize most skin diseases based on their appearances, anatomic distributions, and behavior. Sometimes, however, those criteria do not allow a conclusive diagnosis to be made, and a skin biopsy is taken to be examined under the microscope or subject to other molecular tests. That process reveals the histology of the disease and results in a specific diagnostic interpretation. In some cases, additional specialized testing needs to be performed on biopsies, including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and molecular-pathologic analysis.

e-Pathology is defining the new paradigm of anatomic pathology. Telepathology image based information sent to the far distance by telecommunication technology for research analysis in both academic and business side. e-Pathology is a complete scan of a microscopic glass slide and the viewing of the eSlide on a computer monitor through a digital software system. The researches in pathology look beyond the Advancements in diagnosis pathology by using the automated image analysis. The global digital pathology market, valued at $1.98 billion in 2012, is estimated to reach $5.7 billion by 2020. The Association of Digital Pathology is the main Association in Digital pathology field and conducts annual Pathology meetings. Ventana, Leica, Philips, GE Helath care are the main competitors for Digital Pathology software updates and new releases.

Veterinary Pathology is the study and diagnosis of animal disease by using animal tissue and fluids. Veterinary Pathology is classified into two main disciplines; those are veterinary anatomical pathology and veterinary clinical pathology. Veterinary Pathology deals with the following diseases like Veterinary parasite diseases and Veterinary parasitology whereas Veterinary clinical pathology deals with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis. The American college of veterinary pathologists and European college veterinary pathologists are the main organizations working on pathology research and grants for the research. Veterinary pathology provides a critical link between the basic and clinical sciences. There are 10 main associations and societies in USA and approximately 60 universities around USA are associated with Veterinary Pathology.